Source code for twitter.api

#!/usr/bin/env python

#
#
# Copyright 2007-2016, 2018 The Python-Twitter Developers
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

"""A library that provides a Python interface to the Twitter API"""
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function

import json
import sys
import gzip
import time
import base64
import re
import logging
import requests
from requests_oauthlib import OAuth1, OAuth2
import io
import warnings
from uuid import uuid4
import os

try:
    # python 3
    from urllib.parse import urlparse, urlunparse, urlencode, quote_plus
    from urllib.request import __version__ as urllib_version
except ImportError:
    from urlparse import urlparse, urlunparse
    from urllib import urlencode, quote_plus
    from urllib import __version__ as urllib_version

from twitter import (
    __version__,
    _FileCache,
    Category,
    DirectMessage,
    List,
    Status,
    Trend,
    User,
    UserStatus,
)

from twitter.ratelimit import RateLimit

from twitter.twitter_utils import (
    calc_expected_status_length,
    is_url,
    parse_media_file,
    enf_type,
    parse_arg_list)

from twitter.error import (
    TwitterError,
    PythonTwitterDeprecationWarning330,
)

if sys.version_info > (3,):
    long = int  # pylint: disable=invalid-name,redefined-builtin

CHARACTER_LIMIT = 280

# A singleton representing a lazily instantiated FileCache.
DEFAULT_CACHE = object()

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


[docs]class Api(object): """A python interface into the Twitter API By default, the Api caches results for 1 minute. Example usage: To create an instance of the twitter.Api class, with no authentication: >>> import twitter >>> api = twitter.Api() To fetch a single user's public status messages, where "user" is either a Twitter "short name" or their user id. >>> statuses = api.GetUserTimeline(user) >>> print([s.text for s in statuses]) To use authentication, instantiate the twitter.Api class with a consumer key and secret; and the oAuth key and secret: >>> api = twitter.Api(consumer_key='twitter consumer key', consumer_secret='twitter consumer secret', access_token_key='the_key_given', access_token_secret='the_key_secret') To fetch your friends (after being authenticated): >>> users = api.GetFriends() >>> print([u.name for u in users]) To post a twitter status message (after being authenticated): >>> status = api.PostUpdate('I love python-twitter!') >>> print(status.text) I love python-twitter! There are many other methods, including: >>> api.PostUpdates(status) >>> api.PostDirectMessage(user, text) >>> api.GetUser(user) >>> api.GetReplies() >>> api.GetUserTimeline(user) >>> api.GetHomeTimeline() >>> api.GetStatus(status_id) >>> api.GetStatuses(status_ids) >>> api.DestroyStatus(status_id) >>> api.GetFriends(user) >>> api.GetFollowers() >>> api.GetFeatured() >>> api.GetDirectMessages() >>> api.GetSentDirectMessages() >>> api.PostDirectMessage(user, text) >>> api.DestroyDirectMessage(message_id) >>> api.DestroyFriendship(user) >>> api.CreateFriendship(user) >>> api.LookupFriendship(user) >>> api.VerifyCredentials() """ DEFAULT_CACHE_TIMEOUT = 60 # cache for 1 minute _API_REALM = 'Twitter API' def __init__(self, consumer_key=None, consumer_secret=None, access_token_key=None, access_token_secret=None, application_only_auth=False, input_encoding=None, request_headers=None, cache=DEFAULT_CACHE, base_url=None, stream_url=None, upload_url=None, chunk_size=1024 * 1024, use_gzip_compression=False, debugHTTP=False, timeout=None, sleep_on_rate_limit=False, tweet_mode='compat', proxies=None): """Instantiate a new twitter.Api object. Args: consumer_key (str): Your Twitter user's consumer_key. consumer_secret (str): Your Twitter user's consumer_secret. access_token_key (str): The oAuth access token key value you retrieved from running get_access_token.py. access_token_secret (str): The oAuth access token's secret, also retrieved from the get_access_token.py run. application_only_auth: Use Application-Only Auth instead of User Auth. Defaults to False [Optional] input_encoding (str, optional): The encoding used to encode input strings. request_header (dict, optional): A dictionary of additional HTTP request headers. cache (object, optional): The cache instance to use. Defaults to DEFAULT_CACHE. Use None to disable caching. base_url (str, optional): The base URL to use to contact the Twitter API. Defaults to https://api.twitter.com. stream_url (str, optional): The base URL to use for streaming endpoints. Defaults to 'https://stream.twitter.com/1.1'. upload_url (str, optional): The base URL to use for uploads. Defaults to 'https://upload.twitter.com/1.1'. chunk_size (int, optional): Chunk size to use for chunked (multi-part) uploads of images/videos/gifs. Defaults to 1MB. Anything under 16KB and you run the risk of erroring out on 15MB files. use_gzip_compression (bool, optional): Set to True to tell enable gzip compression for any call made to Twitter. Defaults to False. debugHTTP (bool, optional): Set to True to enable debug output from urllib2 when performing any HTTP requests. Defaults to False. timeout (int, optional): Set timeout (in seconds) of the http/https requests. If None the requests lib default will be used. Defaults to None. sleep_on_rate_limit (bool, optional): Whether to sleep an appropriate amount of time if a rate limit is hit for an endpoint. tweet_mode (str, optional): Whether to use the new (as of Sept. 2016) extended tweet mode. See docs for details. Choices are ['compatibility', 'extended']. proxies (dict, optional): A dictionary of proxies for the request to pass through, if not specified allows requests lib to use environmental variables for proxy if any. """ # check to see if the library is running on a Google App Engine instance # see GAE.rst for more information if os.environ: if 'APPENGINE_RUNTIME' in os.environ.keys(): # Adapter ensures requests use app engine's urlfetch import requests_toolbelt.adapters.appengine requests_toolbelt.adapters.appengine.monkeypatch() # App Engine does not like this caching strategy, disable caching cache = None self.SetCache(cache) self._cache_timeout = Api.DEFAULT_CACHE_TIMEOUT self._input_encoding = input_encoding self._use_gzip = use_gzip_compression self._debugHTTP = debugHTTP self._shortlink_size = 19 if timeout and timeout < 30: warnings.warn("Warning: The Twitter streaming API sends 30s keepalives, the given timeout is shorter!") self._timeout = timeout self.__auth = None self._InitializeRequestHeaders(request_headers) self._InitializeUserAgent() self._InitializeDefaultParameters() self.rate_limit = RateLimit() self.sleep_on_rate_limit = sleep_on_rate_limit self.tweet_mode = tweet_mode self.proxies = proxies if base_url is None: self.base_url = 'https://api.twitter.com/1.1' else: self.base_url = base_url if stream_url is None: self.stream_url = 'https://stream.twitter.com/1.1' else: self.stream_url = stream_url if upload_url is None: self.upload_url = 'https://upload.twitter.com/1.1' else: self.upload_url = upload_url self.chunk_size = chunk_size if self.chunk_size < 1024 * 16: warnings.warn(( "A chunk size lower than 16384 may result in too many " "requests to the Twitter API when uploading videos. You are " "strongly advised to increase it above 16384")) if (consumer_key and not (application_only_auth or all([access_token_key, access_token_secret]))): raise TwitterError({'message': "Missing oAuth Consumer Key or Access Token"}) self.SetCredentials(consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token_key, access_token_secret, application_only_auth) if debugHTTP: try: import http.client as http_client # python3 except ImportError: import httplib as http_client # python2 http_client.HTTPConnection.debuglevel = 1 logging.basicConfig() # you need to initialize logging, otherwise you will not see anything from requests logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.DEBUG) requests_log = logging.getLogger("requests.packages.urllib3") requests_log.setLevel(logging.DEBUG) requests_log.propagate = True self._session = requests.Session()
[docs] @staticmethod def GetAppOnlyAuthToken(consumer_key, consumer_secret): """ Generate a Bearer Token from consumer_key and consumer_secret """ key = quote_plus(consumer_key) secret = quote_plus(consumer_secret) bearer_token = base64.b64encode('{}:{}'.format(key, secret).encode('utf8')) post_headers = { 'Authorization': 'Basic {0}'.format(bearer_token.decode('utf8')), 'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded;charset=UTF-8' } res = requests.post(url='https://api.twitter.com/oauth2/token', data={'grant_type': 'client_credentials'}, headers=post_headers) bearer_creds = res.json() return bearer_creds
[docs] def SetCredentials(self, consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token_key=None, access_token_secret=None, application_only_auth=False): """Set the consumer_key and consumer_secret for this instance Args: consumer_key: The consumer_key of the twitter account. consumer_secret: The consumer_secret for the twitter account. access_token_key: The oAuth access token key value you retrieved from running get_access_token.py. access_token_secret: The oAuth access token's secret, also retrieved from the get_access_token.py run. application_only_auth: Whether to generate a bearer token and use Application-Only Auth """ self._consumer_key = consumer_key self._consumer_secret = consumer_secret self._access_token_key = access_token_key self._access_token_secret = access_token_secret if application_only_auth: self._bearer_token = self.GetAppOnlyAuthToken(consumer_key, consumer_secret) self.__auth = OAuth2(token=self._bearer_token) else: auth_list = [consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token_key, access_token_secret] if all(auth_list): self.__auth = OAuth1(consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token_key, access_token_secret) self._config = None
[docs] def GetHelpConfiguration(self): """Get basic help configuration details from Twitter. Args: None Returns: dict: Sets self._config and returns dict of help config values. """ if self._config is None: url = '%s/help/configuration.json' % self.base_url resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET') data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) self._config = data return self._config
[docs] def GetShortUrlLength(self, https=False): """Returns number of characters reserved per URL included in a tweet. Args: https (bool, optional): If True, return number of characters reserved for https urls or, if False, return number of character reserved for http urls. Returns: (int): Number of characters reserved per URL. """ config = self.GetHelpConfiguration() if https: return config['short_url_length_https'] else: return config['short_url_length']
[docs] def ClearCredentials(self): """Clear any credentials for this instance """ self._consumer_key = None self._consumer_secret = None self._access_token_key = None self._access_token_secret = None self._bearer_token = None self.__auth = None # for request upgrade
[docs] def GetSearch(self, term=None, raw_query=None, geocode=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, until=None, since=None, count=15, lang=None, locale=None, result_type="mixed", include_entities=None, return_json=False): """Return twitter search results for a given term. You must specify one of term, geocode, or raw_query. Args: term (str, optional): Term to search by. Optional if you include geocode. raw_query (str, optional): A raw query as a string. This should be everything after the "?" in the URL (i.e., the query parameters). You are responsible for all type checking and ensuring that the query string is properly formatted, as it will only be URL-encoded before be passed directly to Twitter with no other checks performed. For advanced usage only. *This will override any other parameters passed* since_id (int, optional): Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. max_id (int, optional): Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. until (str, optional): Returns tweets generated before the given date. Date should be formatted as YYYY-MM-DD. since (str, optional): Returns tweets generated since the given date. Date should be formatted as YYYY-MM-DD. geocode (str or list or tuple, optional): Geolocation within which to search for tweets. Can be either a string in the form of "latitude,longitude,radius" where latitude and longitude are floats and radius is a string such as "1mi" or "1km" ("mi" or "km" are the only units allowed). For example: >>> api.GetSearch(geocode="37.781157,-122.398720,1mi"). Otherwise, you can pass a list of either floats or strings for lat/long and a string for radius: >>> api.GetSearch(geocode=[37.781157, -122.398720, "1mi"]) >>> # or: >>> api.GetSearch(geocode=(37.781157, -122.398720, "1mi")) >>> # or: >>> api.GetSearch(geocode=("37.781157", "-122.398720", "1mi")) count (int, optional): Number of results to return. Default is 15 and maxmimum that Twitter returns is 100 irrespective of what you type in. lang (str, optional): Language for results as ISO 639-1 code. Default is None (all languages). locale (str, optional): Language of the search query. Currently only 'ja' is effective. This is intended for language-specific consumers and the default should work in the majority of cases. result_type (str, optional): Type of result which should be returned. Default is "mixed". Valid options are "mixed, "recent", and "popular". include_entities (bool, optional): If True, each tweet will include a node called "entities". This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a discrete structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and hashtags. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.Userret Returns: list: A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message containing the term, within the bounds of the geocoded area, or given by the raw_query. """ url = '%s/search/tweets.json' % self.base_url parameters = {} if since_id: parameters['since_id'] = enf_type('since_id', int, since_id) if max_id: parameters['max_id'] = enf_type('max_id', int, max_id) if until: parameters['until'] = enf_type('until', str, until) if since: parameters['since'] = enf_type('since', str, since) if lang: parameters['lang'] = enf_type('lang', str, lang) if locale: parameters['locale'] = enf_type('locale', str, locale) if term is None and geocode is None and raw_query is None: return [] if term is not None: parameters['q'] = term if geocode is not None: if isinstance(geocode, list) or isinstance(geocode, tuple): parameters['geocode'] = ','.join([str(geo) for geo in geocode]) else: parameters['geocode'] = enf_type('geocode', str, geocode) if include_entities: parameters['include_entities'] = enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) if result_type in ["mixed", "popular", "recent"]: parameters['result_type'] = result_type if raw_query is not None: url = "{url}?{raw_query}".format( url=url, raw_query=raw_query) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET') else: resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data.get('statuses', '')]
[docs] def GetUsersSearch(self, term=None, page=1, count=20, include_entities=None): """Return twitter user search results for a given term. Args: term: Term to search by. page: Page of results to return. Default is 1 [Optional] count: Number of results to return. Default is 20 [Optional] include_entities: If True, each tweet will include a node called "entities,". This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a discrete structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and hashtags. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each message containing the term """ # Build request parameters parameters = {} if term is not None: parameters['q'] = term if page != 1: parameters['page'] = page if include_entities: parameters['include_entities'] = 1 try: parameters['count'] = int(count) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "count must be an integer"}) # Make and send requests url = '%s/users/search.json' % self.base_url resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return [User.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def GetTrendsCurrent(self, exclude=None): """Get the current top trending topics (global) Args: exclude: Appends the exclude parameter as a request parameter. Currently only exclude=hashtags is supported. [Optional] Returns: A list with 10 entries. Each entry contains a trend. """ return self.GetTrendsWoeid(woeid=1, exclude=exclude)
[docs] def GetTrendsWoeid(self, woeid, exclude=None): """Return the top 10 trending topics for a specific WOEID, if trending information is available for it. Args: woeid: the Yahoo! Where On Earth ID for a location. exclude: Appends the exclude parameter as a request parameter. Currently only exclude=hashtags is supported. [Optional] Returns: A list with 10 entries. Each entry contains a trend. """ url = '%s/trends/place.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {'id': woeid} if exclude: parameters['exclude'] = exclude resp = self._RequestUrl(url, verb='GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) trends = [] timestamp = data[0]['as_of'] for trend in data[0]['trends']: trends.append(Trend.NewFromJsonDict(trend, timestamp=timestamp)) return trends
[docs] def GetUserSuggestionCategories(self): """ Return the list of suggested user categories, this can be used in GetUserSuggestion function Returns: A list of categories """ url = '%s/users/suggestions.json' % (self.base_url) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, verb='GET') data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) categories = [] for category in data: categories.append(Category.NewFromJsonDict(category)) return categories
[docs] def GetUserSuggestion(self, category): """ Returns a list of users in a category Args: category: The Category object to limit the search by Returns: A list of users in that category """ url = '%s/users/suggestions/%s.json' % (self.base_url, category.slug) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, verb='GET') data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) users = [] for user in data['users']: users.append(User.NewFromJsonDict(user)) return users
[docs] def GetHomeTimeline(self, count=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, trim_user=False, exclude_replies=False, contributor_details=False, include_entities=True): """Fetch a collection of the most recent Tweets and retweets posted by the authenticating user and the users they follow. The home timeline is central to how most users interact with Twitter. Args: count: Specifies the number of statuses to retrieve. May not be greater than 200. Defaults to 20. [Optional] since_id: Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional] max_id: Returns results with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. [Optional] trim_user: When True, each tweet returned in a timeline will include a user object including only the status authors numerical ID. Omit this parameter to receive the complete user object. [Optional] exclude_replies: This parameter will prevent replies from appearing in the returned timeline. Using exclude_replies with the count parameter will mean you will receive up-to count tweets - this is because the count parameter retrieves that many tweets before filtering out retweets and replies. [Optional] contributor_details: This parameter enhances the contributors element of the status response to include the screen_name of the contributor. By default only the user_id of the contributor is included. [Optional] include_entities: The entities node will be disincluded when set to false. This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a discreet structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and hashtags. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message """ url = '%s/statuses/home_timeline.json' % self.base_url parameters = {} if count is not None: try: if int(count) > 200: raise TwitterError({'message': "'count' may not be greater than 200"}) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "'count' must be an integer"}) parameters['count'] = count if since_id: try: parameters['since_id'] = int(since_id) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "'since_id' must be an integer"}) if max_id: try: parameters['max_id'] = int(max_id) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "'max_id' must be an integer"}) if trim_user: parameters['trim_user'] = 1 if exclude_replies: parameters['exclude_replies'] = 1 if contributor_details: parameters['contributor_details'] = 1 if not include_entities: parameters['include_entities'] = 'false' resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def GetUserTimeline(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, count=None, include_rts=True, trim_user=False, exclude_replies=False): """Fetch the sequence of public Status messages for a single user. The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated if the user is private. Args: user_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid user ID is also a valid screen name. screen_name (str, optional): Specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid screen name is also a user ID. since_id (int, optional): Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. max_id (int, optional): Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. count (int, optional): Specifies the number of statuses to retrieve. May not be greater than 200. include_rts (bool, optional): If True, the timeline will contain native retweets (if they exist) in addition to the standard stream of tweets. trim_user (bool, optional): If True, statuses will only contain the numerical user ID only. Otherwise a full user object will be returned for each status. exclude_replies (bool, optional) If True, this will prevent replies from appearing in the returned timeline. Using exclude_replies with the count parameter will mean you will receive up-to count tweets - this is because the count parameter retrieves that many tweets before filtering out retweets and replies. This parameter is only supported for JSON and XML responses. Returns: A sequence of Status instances, one for each message up to count """ url = '%s/statuses/user_timeline.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} if user_id: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if since_id: parameters['since_id'] = enf_type('since_id', int, since_id) if max_id: parameters['max_id'] = enf_type('max_id', int, max_id) if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) parameters['include_rts'] = enf_type('include_rts', bool, include_rts) parameters['trim_user'] = enf_type('trim_user', bool, trim_user) parameters['exclude_replies'] = enf_type('exclude_replies', bool, exclude_replies) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def GetStatus(self, status_id, trim_user=False, include_my_retweet=True, include_entities=True, include_ext_alt_text=True): """Returns a single status message, specified by the status_id parameter. Args: status_id: The numeric ID of the status you are trying to retrieve. trim_user: When set to True, each tweet returned in a timeline will include a user object including only the status authors numerical ID. Omit this parameter to receive the complete user object. [Optional] include_my_retweet: When set to True, any Tweets returned that have been retweeted by the authenticating user will include an additional current_user_retweet node, containing the ID of the source status for the retweet. [Optional] include_entities: If False, the entities node will be disincluded. This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a discreet structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and hashtags. [Optional] Returns: A twitter.Status instance representing that status message """ url = '%s/statuses/show.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = { 'id': enf_type('status_id', int, status_id), 'trim_user': enf_type('trim_user', bool, trim_user), 'include_my_retweet': enf_type('include_my_retweet', bool, include_my_retweet), 'include_entities': enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities), 'include_ext_alt_text': enf_type('include_ext_alt_text', bool, include_ext_alt_text) } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def GetStatuses(self, status_ids, trim_user=False, include_entities=True, map=False): """Returns a list of status messages, specified by the status_ids parameter. Args: status_ids: A list of the numeric ID of the statuses you are trying to retrieve. trim_user: When set to True, each tweet returned in a timeline will include a user object including only the status authors numerical ID. Omit this parameter to receive the complete user object. [Optional] include_entities: If False, the entities node will be disincluded. This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a discreet structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and hashtags. [Optional] map: If True, returns a dictionary with status id as key and returned status data (or None if tweet does not exist or is inaccessible) as value. Otherwise returns an unordered list of successfully retrieved Tweets. [Optional] Returns: A dictionary or unordered list (depending on the parameter 'map') of twitter Status instances representing the status messages. """ url = '%s/statuses/lookup.json' % (self.base_url) map = enf_type('map', bool, map) if map: result = {} else: result = [] offset = 0 parameters = { 'trim_user': enf_type('trim_user', bool, trim_user), 'include_entities': enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities), 'map': map } while offset < len(status_ids): parameters['id'] = ','.join([str(enf_type('status_id', int, status_id)) for status_id in status_ids[offset:offset + 100]]) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if map: result.update({int(key): (Status.NewFromJsonDict(value) if value else None) for key, value in data['id'].items()}) else: result += [Status.NewFromJsonDict(dataitem) for dataitem in data] offset += 100 return result
[docs] def GetStatusOembed(self, status_id=None, url=None, maxwidth=None, hide_media=False, hide_thread=False, omit_script=False, align=None, related=None, lang=None): """Returns information allowing the creation of an embedded representation of a Tweet on third party sites. Specify tweet by the id or url parameter. Args: status_id: The numeric ID of the status you are trying to embed. url: The url of the status you are trying to embed. maxwidth: The maximum width in pixels that the embed should be rendered at. This value is constrained to be between 250 and 550 pixels. [Optional] hide_media: Specifies whether the embedded Tweet should automatically expand images. [Optional] hide_thread: Specifies whether the embedded Tweet should automatically show the original message in the case that the embedded Tweet is a reply. [Optional] omit_script: Specifies whether the embedded Tweet HTML should include a <script> element pointing to widgets.js. [Optional] align: Specifies whether the embedded Tweet should be left aligned, right aligned, or centered in the page. [Optional] related: A comma sperated string of related screen names. [Optional] lang: Language code for the rendered embed. [Optional] Returns: A dictionary with the response. """ request_url = '%s/statuses/oembed.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} if status_id is not None: try: parameters['id'] = int(status_id) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "'status_id' must be an integer."}) elif url is not None: parameters['url'] = url else: raise TwitterError({'message': "Must specify either 'status_id' or 'url'"}) if maxwidth is not None: parameters['maxwidth'] = maxwidth if hide_media is True: parameters['hide_media'] = 'true' if hide_thread is True: parameters['hide_thread'] = 'true' if omit_script is True: parameters['omit_script'] = 'true' if align is not None: if align not in ('left', 'center', 'right', 'none'): raise TwitterError({'message': "'align' must be 'left', 'center', 'right', or 'none'"}) parameters['align'] = align if related: if not isinstance(related, str): raise TwitterError({'message': "'related' should be a string of comma separated screen names"}) parameters['related'] = related if lang is not None: if not isinstance(lang, str): raise TwitterError({'message': "'lang' should be string instance"}) parameters['lang'] = lang resp = self._RequestUrl(request_url, 'GET', data=parameters, enforce_auth=False) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return data
[docs] def DestroyStatus(self, status_id, trim_user=False): """Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the author of the specified status. Args: status_id (int): The numerical ID of the status you're trying to destroy. trim_user (bool, optional): When set to True, each tweet returned in a timeline will include a user object including only the status authors numerical ID. Returns: A twitter.Status instance representing the destroyed status message """ url = '%s/statuses/destroy/%s.json' % (self.base_url, status_id) post_data = { 'id': enf_type('status_id', int, status_id), 'trim_user': enf_type('trim_user', bool, trim_user) } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=post_data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def PostUpdate(self, status, media=None, media_additional_owners=None, media_category=None, in_reply_to_status_id=None, auto_populate_reply_metadata=False, exclude_reply_user_ids=None, latitude=None, longitude=None, place_id=None, display_coordinates=False, trim_user=False, verify_status_length=True, attachment_url=None): """Post a twitter status message from the authenticated user. https://dev.twitter.com/docs/api/1.1/post/statuses/update Args: status (str): The message text to be posted. Must be less than or equal to CHARACTER_LIMIT characters. media (int, str, fp, optional): A URL, a local file, or a file-like object (something with a read() method), or a list of any combination of the above. media_additional_owners (list, optional): A list of user ids representing Twitter users that should be able to use the uploaded media in their tweets. If you pass a list of media, then additional_owners will apply to each object. If you need more granular control, please use the UploadMedia* methods. media_category (str, optional): Only for use with the AdsAPI. See https://dev.twitter.com/ads/creative/promoted-video-overview if this applies to your application. in_reply_to_status_id (int, optional): The ID of an existing status that the status to be posted is in reply to. This implicitly sets the in_reply_to_user_id attribute of the resulting status to the user ID of the message being replied to. Invalid/missing status IDs will be ignored. auto_populate_reply_metadata (bool, optional): Automatically include the @usernames of the users mentioned or participating in the tweet to which this tweet is in reply. exclude_reply_user_ids (list, optional): Remove given user_ids (*not* @usernames) from the tweet's automatically generated reply metadata. attachment_url (str, optional): URL to an attachment resource: one to four photos, a GIF, video, Quote Tweet, or DM deep link. If not specified and media parameter is not None, we will attach the first media object as the attachment URL. If a bad URL is passed, Twitter will raise an error. latitude (float, optional): Latitude coordinate of the tweet in degrees. Will only work in conjunction with longitude argument. Both longitude and latitude will be ignored by twitter if the user has a false geo_enabled setting. longitude (float, optional): Longitude coordinate of the tweet in degrees. Will only work in conjunction with latitude argument. Both longitude and latitude will be ignored by twitter if the user has a false geo_enabled setting. place_id (int, optional): A place in the world. These IDs can be retrieved from GET geo/reverse_geocode. display_coordinates (bool, optional): Whether or not to put a pin on the exact coordinates a tweet has been sent from. trim_user (bool, optional): If True the returned payload will only contain the user IDs, otherwise the payload will contain the full user data item. verify_status_length (bool, optional): If True, api throws a hard error that the status is over CHARACTER_LIMIT characters. If False, Api will attempt to post the status. Returns: (twitter.Status) A twitter.Status instance representing the message posted. """ url = '%s/statuses/update.json' % self.base_url if isinstance(status, str) or self._input_encoding is None: u_status = status else: u_status = str(status, self._input_encoding) if verify_status_length and calc_expected_status_length(u_status) > CHARACTER_LIMIT: raise TwitterError("Text must be less than or equal to CHARACTER_LIMIT characters.") if auto_populate_reply_metadata and not in_reply_to_status_id: raise TwitterError("If auto_populate_reply_metadata is True, you must set in_reply_to_status_id") parameters = { 'status': u_status, 'in_reply_to_status_id': in_reply_to_status_id, 'auto_populate_reply_metadata': auto_populate_reply_metadata, 'place_id': place_id, 'display_coordinates': display_coordinates, 'trim_user': trim_user, 'exclude_reply_user_ids': ','.join([str(u) for u in exclude_reply_user_ids or []]), } if attachment_url: parameters['attachment_url'] = attachment_url if media: chunked_types = ['video/mp4', 'video/quicktime', 'image/gif'] media_ids = [] if isinstance(media, (int, long)): media_ids.append(media) elif isinstance(media, list): for media_file in media: # If you want to pass just a media ID, it should be an int if isinstance(media_file, (int, long)): media_ids.append(media_file) continue _, _, file_size, media_type = parse_media_file(media_file) if (media_type == 'image/gif' or media_type == 'video/mp4') and len(media) > 1: raise TwitterError( 'You cannot post more than 1 GIF or 1 video in a single status.') if file_size > self.chunk_size or media_type in chunked_types: media_id = self.UploadMediaChunked( media=media_file, additional_owners=media_additional_owners, media_category=media_category) else: media_id = self.UploadMediaSimple( media=media_file, additional_owners=media_additional_owners, media_category=media_category) media_ids.append(media_id) else: _, _, file_size, media_type = parse_media_file(media) if file_size > self.chunk_size or media_type in chunked_types: media_ids.append(self.UploadMediaChunked( media, media_additional_owners, media_category=media_category )) else: media_ids.append(self.UploadMediaSimple( media, media_additional_owners, media_category=media_category )) parameters['media_ids'] = ','.join([str(mid) for mid in media_ids]) if latitude is not None and longitude is not None: parameters['lat'] = str(latitude) parameters['long'] = str(longitude) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def UploadMediaSimple(self, media, additional_owners=None, media_category=None): """ Upload a media file to Twitter in one request. Used for small file uploads that do not require chunked uploads. Args: media: File-like object to upload. additional_owners: additional Twitter users that are allowed to use The uploaded media. Should be a list of integers. Maximum number of additional owners is capped at 100 by Twitter. media_category: Category with which to identify media upload. Only use with Ads API & video files. Returns: media_id: ID of the uploaded media returned by the Twitter API or 0. """ url = '%s/media/upload.json' % self.upload_url parameters = {} media_fp, _, _, _ = parse_media_file(media) parameters['media'] = media_fp.read() if additional_owners and len(additional_owners) > 100: raise TwitterError({'message': 'Maximum of 100 additional owners may be specified for a Media object'}) if additional_owners: parameters['additional_owners'] = additional_owners if media_category: parameters['media_category'] = media_category resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) try: return data['media_id'] except KeyError: raise TwitterError({'message': 'Media could not be uploaded.'})
[docs] def PostMediaMetadata(self, media_id, alt_text=None): """Provide addtional data for uploaded media. Args: media_id: ID of a previously uploaded media item. alt_text: Image Alternate Text. """ url = '%s/media/metadata/create.json' % self.upload_url parameters = {} parameters['media_id'] = media_id if alt_text: parameters['alt_text'] = {"text": alt_text} resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', json=parameters) return resp
def _UploadMediaChunkedInit(self, media, additional_owners=None, media_category=None): """Start a chunked upload to Twitter. Args: media: File-like object to upload. additional_owners: additional Twitter users that are allowed to use The uploaded media. Should be a list of integers. Maximum number of additional owners is capped at 100 by Twitter. media_category: Category with which to identify media upload. Only use with Ads API & video files. Returns: tuple: media_id (returned from Twitter), file-handler object (i.e., has .read() method), filename media file. """ url = '%s/media/upload.json' % self.upload_url media_fp, filename, file_size, media_type = parse_media_file(media, async_upload=True) if not all([media_fp, filename, file_size, media_type]): raise TwitterError({'message': 'Could not process media file'}) parameters = {} if additional_owners and len(additional_owners) > 100: raise TwitterError({'message': 'Maximum of 100 additional owners may be specified for a Media object'}) if additional_owners: parameters['additional_owners'] = additional_owners if media_category: parameters['media_category'] = media_category # INIT doesn't read in any data. It's purpose is to prepare Twitter to # receive the content in APPEND requests. parameters['command'] = 'INIT' parameters['media_type'] = media_type parameters['total_bytes'] = file_size resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) try: media_id = data['media_id'] except KeyError: raise TwitterError({'message': 'Media could not be uploaded'}) return (media_id, media_fp, filename) def _UploadMediaChunkedAppend(self, media_id, media_fp, filename): """Appends (i.e., actually uploads) media file to Twitter. Args: media_id (int): ID of the media file received from Init method. media_fp (file): File-like object representing media file (must have .read() method) filename (str): Filename of the media file being uploaded. Returns: True if successful. Raises otherwise. """ url = '%s/media/upload.json' % self.upload_url boundary = "--{0}".format(uuid4().hex).encode('utf-8') media_id_bytes = str(media_id).encode('utf-8') headers = {'Content-Type': 'multipart/form-data; boundary={0}'.format( boundary.decode('utf8')[2:] )} segment_id = 0 while True: try: data = media_fp.read(self.chunk_size) except ValueError: break if not data: break body = [ boundary, b'Content-Disposition: form-data; name="command"', b'', b'APPEND', boundary, b'Content-Disposition: form-data; name="media_id"', b'', media_id_bytes, boundary, b'Content-Disposition: form-data; name="segment_index"', b'', str(segment_id).encode('utf-8'), boundary, 'Content-Disposition: form-data; name="media"; filename="{0!r}"'.format(filename).encode('utf8'), b'Content-Type: application/octet-stream', b'', data, boundary + b'--' ] body_data = b'\r\n'.join(body) headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(body_data)) resp = self._RequestChunkedUpload(url=url, headers=headers, data=body_data) # The body of the response should be blank, but the normal decoding # raises a JSONDecodeError, so we should only do error checking # if the response is not blank. if resp.content.decode('utf-8'): return self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) segment_id += 1 try: media_fp.close() except Exception as e: pass return True def _UploadMediaChunkedFinalize(self, media_id): """Finalize chunked upload to Twitter. Args: media_id (int): ID of the media file for which to finalize the upload. Returns: json: JSON string of data from Twitter. """ url = '%s/media/upload.json' % self.upload_url parameters = { 'command': 'FINALIZE', 'media_id': media_id } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return data
[docs] def UploadMediaChunked(self, media, additional_owners=None, media_category=None): """Upload a media file to Twitter in multiple requests. Args: media: File-like object to upload. additional_owners: additional Twitter users that are allowed to use The uploaded media. Should be a list of integers. Maximum number of additional owners is capped at 100 by Twitter. media_category: Category with which to identify media upload. Only use with Ads API & video files. Returns: media_id: ID of the uploaded media returned by the Twitter API. Raises if unsuccesful. """ media_id, media_fp, filename = self._UploadMediaChunkedInit(media=media, additional_owners=additional_owners, media_category=media_category) append = self._UploadMediaChunkedAppend(media_id=media_id, media_fp=media_fp, filename=filename) if not append: TwitterError('Media could not be uploaded.') data = self._UploadMediaChunkedFinalize(media_id) try: return data['media_id'] except KeyError: raise TwitterError('Media could not be uploaded.')
def _TweetTextWrap(self, status, char_lim=CHARACTER_LIMIT): if not self._config: self.GetHelpConfiguration() tweets = [] line = [] line_length = 0 words = re.split(r'\s', status) if len(words) == 1 and not is_url(words[0]): if len(words[0]) > CHARACTER_LIMIT: raise TwitterError("Unable to split status into tweetable parts. Word was: {0}/{1}".format(len(words[0]), char_lim)) else: tweets.append(words[0]) return tweets for word in words: if len(word) > char_lim: raise TwitterError("Unable to split status into tweetable parts. Word was: {0}/{1}".format(len(word), char_lim)) new_len = line_length if is_url(word): new_len = line_length + self._config['short_url_length_https'] + 1 else: new_len += len(word) + 1 if new_len > CHARACTER_LIMIT: tweets.append(' '.join(line)) line = [word] line_length = new_len - line_length else: line.append(word) line_length = new_len tweets.append(' '.join(line)) return tweets
[docs] def PostUpdates(self, status, continuation=None, **kwargs): """Post one or more twitter status messages from the authenticated user. Unlike api.PostUpdate, this method will post multiple status updates if the message is longer than CHARACTER_LIMIT characters. Args: status: The message text to be posted. May be longer than CHARACTER_LIMIT characters. continuation: The character string, if any, to be appended to all but the last message. Note that Twitter strips trailing '...' strings from messages. Consider using the unicode \u2026 character (horizontal ellipsis) instead. [Defaults to None] **kwargs: See api.PostUpdate for a list of accepted parameters. Returns: A of list twitter.Status instance representing the messages posted. """ results = list() if continuation is None: continuation = '' char_limit = CHARACTER_LIMIT - len(continuation) tweets = self._TweetTextWrap(status=status, char_lim=char_limit) if len(tweets) == 1: results.append(self.PostUpdate(status=tweets[0], **kwargs)) return results for tweet in tweets[0:-1]: results.append(self.PostUpdate(status=tweet + continuation, **kwargs)) results.append(self.PostUpdate(status=tweets[-1], **kwargs)) return results
[docs] def PostRetweet(self, status_id, trim_user=False): """Retweet a tweet with the Retweet API. Args: status_id: The numerical id of the tweet that will be retweeted trim_user: If True the returned payload will only contain the user IDs, otherwise the payload will contain the full user data item. [Optional] Returns: A twitter.Status instance representing the original tweet with retweet details embedded. """ try: if int(status_id) <= 0: raise TwitterError({'message': "'status_id' must be a positive number"}) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "'status_id' must be an integer"}) url = '%s/statuses/retweet/%s.json' % (self.base_url, status_id) data = {'id': status_id} if trim_user: data['trim_user'] = 'true' resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def GetUserRetweets(self, count=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, trim_user=False): """Fetch the sequence of retweets made by the authenticated user. Args: count: The number of status messages to retrieve. [Optional] since_id: Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional] max_id: Returns results with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. [Optional] trim_user: If True the returned payload will only contain the user IDs, otherwise the payload will contain the full user data item. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message up to count """ return self.GetUserTimeline( since_id=since_id, count=count, max_id=max_id, trim_user=trim_user, exclude_replies=True, include_rts=True)
[docs] def GetReplies(self, since_id=None, count=None, max_id=None, trim_user=False): """Get a sequence of status messages representing the 20 most recent replies (status updates prefixed with @twitterID) to the authenticating user. Args: since_id: Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional] max_id: Returns results with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. [Optional] trim_user: If True the returned payload will only contain the user IDs, otherwise the payload will contain the full user data item. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each reply to the user. """ return self.GetUserTimeline(since_id=since_id, count=count, max_id=max_id, trim_user=trim_user, exclude_replies=False, include_rts=False)
[docs] def GetRetweets(self, statusid, count=None, trim_user=False): """Returns up to 100 of the first retweets of the tweet identified by statusid Args: statusid (int): The ID of the tweet for which retweets should be searched for count (int, optional): The number of status messages to retrieve. trim_user (bool, optional): If True the returned payload will only contain the user IDs, otherwise the payload will contain the full user data item. Returns: A list of twitter.Status instances, which are retweets of statusid """ url = '%s/statuses/retweets/%s.json' % (self.base_url, statusid) parameters = { 'trim_user': enf_type('trim_user', bool, trim_user), } if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(s) for s in data]
[docs] def GetRetweeters(self, status_id, cursor=None, count=100, stringify_ids=False): """Returns a collection of up to 100 user IDs belonging to users who have retweeted the tweet specified by the status_id parameter. Args: status_id: the tweet's numerical ID cursor: breaks the ids into pages of no more than 100. stringify_ids: returns the IDs as unicode strings. [Optional] Returns: A list of user IDs """ url = '%s/statuses/retweeters/ids.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = { 'id': enf_type('id', int, status_id), 'stringify_ids': enf_type('stringify_ids', bool, stringify_ids), 'count': count, } result = [] total_count = 0 while True: if cursor: try: parameters['cursor'] = int(cursor) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "cursor must be an integer"}) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) result += [x for x in data['ids']] if 'next_cursor' in data: if data['next_cursor'] == 0 or data['next_cursor'] == data['previous_cursor']: break else: cursor = data['next_cursor'] total_count -= len(data['ids']) if total_count < 1: break else: break return result
[docs] def GetRetweetsOfMe(self, count=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, trim_user=False, include_entities=True, include_user_entities=True): """Returns up to 100 of the most recent tweets of the user that have been retweeted by others. Args: count: The number of retweets to retrieve, up to 100. Defaults to 20. [Optional] since_id: Returns results with an ID greater than (newer than) this ID. [Optional] max_id: Returns results with an ID less than or equal to this ID. [Optional] trim_user: When True, the user object for each tweet will only be an ID. [Optional] include_entities: When True, the tweet entities will be included. [Optional] include_user_entities: When True, the user entities will be included. [Optional] """ url = '%s/statuses/retweets_of_me.json' % self.base_url if count is not None: try: if int(count) > 100: raise TwitterError({'message': "'count' may not be greater than 100"}) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "'count' must be an integer"}) parameters = { 'count': count, 'since_id': since_id, 'max_id': max_id, 'trim_user': bool(trim_user), 'include_entities': bool(include_entities), 'include_user_entities': bool(include_user_entities), } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(s) for s in data]
def _GetBlocksMutesPaged(self, endpoint, action, cursor=-1, skip_status=False, include_entities=True, stringify_ids=False): """ Fetch a page of the users (as twitter.User instances) blocked or muted by the currently authenticated user. Args: endpoint (str): Either "mute" or "block". action (str): Either 'list' or 'ids' depending if you want to return fully-hydrated twitter.User objects or a list of user IDs as ints. cursor (int, optional): Should be set to -1 if you want the first page, thereafter denotes the page of users that you want to return. skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. include_entities (bool, optional): When True, the user entities will be included. Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, list of twitter.User instances, one for each user. """ urls = { 'mute': { 'list': '%s/mutes/users/list.json' % self.base_url, 'ids': '%s/mutes/users/ids.json' % self.base_url }, 'block': { 'list': '%s/blocks/list.json' % self.base_url, 'ids': '%s/blocks/ids.json' % self.base_url } } url = urls[endpoint][action] result = [] parameters = { 'skip_status': bool(skip_status), 'include_entities': bool(include_entities), 'stringify_ids': bool(stringify_ids), 'cursor': cursor, } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if action == 'ids': result += data.get('ids') else: result += [User.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data['users']] next_cursor = data.get('next_cursor', 0) previous_cursor = data.get('previous_cursor', 0) return next_cursor, previous_cursor, result
[docs] def GetBlocks(self, skip_status=False, include_entities=False): """ Fetch the sequence of all users (as twitter.User instances), blocked by the currently authenticated user. Args: skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. include_entities (bool, optional): When True, the user entities will be included. Returns: A list of twitter.User instances, one for each blocked user. """ result = [] cursor = -1 while True: next_cursor, previous_cursor, users = self.GetBlocksPaged( cursor=cursor, skip_status=skip_status, include_entities=include_entities) result += users if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == previous_cursor: break else: cursor = next_cursor return result
[docs] def GetBlocksPaged(self, cursor=-1, skip_status=False, include_entities=False): """ Fetch a page of the users (as twitter.User instances) blocked by the currently authenticated user. Args: cursor (int, optional): Should be set to -1 if you want the first page, thereafter denotes the page of blocked users that you want to return. skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. include_entities (bool, optional): When True, the user entities will be included. Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, list of twitter.User instances, one for each blocked user. """ return self._GetBlocksMutesPaged(endpoint='block', action='list', cursor=cursor, skip_status=skip_status, include_entities=include_entities)
[docs] def GetBlocksIDs(self, stringify_ids=False): """Fetch the sequence of all user IDs blocked by the currently authenticated user. Args: stringify_ids (bool, optional): If True user IDs will be returned as strings rather than integers. Returns: A list of user IDs for all blocked users. """ result = [] cursor = -1 while True: next_cursor, previous_cursor, user_ids = self.GetBlocksIDsPaged( cursor=cursor, stringify_ids=stringify_ids) result += user_ids if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == previous_cursor: break else: cursor = next_cursor return result
[docs] def GetBlocksIDsPaged(self, cursor=-1, stringify_ids=False): """ Fetch a page of the user IDs blocked by the currently authenticated user. Args: cursor (int, optional): Should be set to -1 if you want the first page, thereafter denotes the page of blocked users that you want to return. stringify_ids (bool, optional): If True user IDs will be returned as strings rather than integers. Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, list of user IDs of blocked users. """ return self._GetBlocksMutesPaged(endpoint='block', action='ids', cursor=cursor, stringify_ids=stringify_ids)
[docs] def GetMutes(self, skip_status=False, include_entities=False): """ Fetch the sequence of all users (as twitter.User instances), muted by the currently authenticated user. Args: skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. include_entities (bool, optional): When True, the user entities will be included. Returns: A list of twitter.User instances, one for each muted user. """ result = [] cursor = -1 while True: next_cursor, previous_cursor, users = self.GetMutesPaged( cursor=cursor, skip_status=skip_status, include_entities=include_entities) result += users if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == previous_cursor: break else: cursor = next_cursor return result
[docs] def GetMutesPaged(self, cursor=-1, skip_status=False, include_entities=False): """ Fetch a page of the users (as twitter.User instances) muted by the currently authenticated user. Args: cursor (int, optional): Should be set to -1 if you want the first page, thereafter denotes the page of muted users that you want to return. skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. include_entities (bool, optional): When True, the user entities will be included. Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, list of twitter.User instances, one for each muted user. """ return self._GetBlocksMutesPaged(endpoint='mute', action='list', cursor=cursor, skip_status=skip_status, include_entities=include_entities)
[docs] def GetMutesIDs(self, stringify_ids=False): """Fetch the sequence of all user IDs muted by the currently authenticated user. Args: stringify_ids (bool, optional): If True user IDs will be returned as strings rather than integers. Returns: A list of user IDs for all muted users. """ result = [] cursor = -1 while True: next_cursor, previous_cursor, user_ids = self.GetMutesIDsPaged( cursor=cursor, stringify_ids=stringify_ids) result += user_ids if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == previous_cursor: break else: cursor = next_cursor return result
[docs] def GetMutesIDsPaged(self, cursor=-1, stringify_ids=False): """ Fetch a page of the user IDs muted by the currently authenticated user. Args: cursor (int, optional): Should be set to -1 if you want the first page, thereafter denotes the page of muted users that you want to return. stringify_ids (bool, optional): If True user IDs will be returned as strings rather than integers. Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, list of user IDs of muted users. """ return self._GetBlocksMutesPaged(endpoint='mute', action='ids', cursor=cursor, stringify_ids=stringify_ids)
def _BlockMute(self, action, endpoint, user_id=None, screen_name=None, include_entities=True, skip_status=False): """Create or destroy a block or mute on behalf of the authenticated user. Args: action (str): Either 'create' or 'destroy'. endpoint (str): Either 'block' or 'mute'. user_id (int, optional) The numerical ID of the user to block/mute. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user to block/mute. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will not be included if set to False. skip_status (bool, optional): When set to False, the blocked User's statuses will not be included with the returned User object. Returns: twitter.User: twitter.User object representing the blocked/muted user. """ urls = { 'block': { 'create': '%s/blocks/create.json' % (self.base_url), 'destroy': '%s/blocks/destroy.json' % (self.base_url), }, 'mute': { 'create': '%s/mutes/users/create.json' % (self.base_url), 'destroy': '%s/mutes/users/destroy.json' % (self.base_url) } } url = urls[endpoint][action] post_data = {} if user_id: post_data['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name: post_data['screen_name'] = screen_name else: raise TwitterError("You must specify either a user_id or screen_name") if include_entities: post_data['include_entities'] = enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) if skip_status: post_data['skip_status'] = enf_type('skip_status', bool, skip_status) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=post_data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def CreateBlock(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, include_entities=True, skip_status=False): """Blocks the user specified by either user_id or screen_name. Args: user_id (int, optional) The numerical ID of the user to block. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user to block. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will not be included if set to False. skip_status (bool, optional): When set to False, the blocked User's statuses will not be included with the returned User object. Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the blocked user. """ return self._BlockMute(action='create', endpoint='block', user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, include_entities=include_entities, skip_status=skip_status)
[docs] def DestroyBlock(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, include_entities=True, skip_status=False): """Unlocks the user specified by either user_id or screen_name. Args: user_id (int, optional) The numerical ID of the user to block. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user to block. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will not be included if set to False. skip_status (bool, optional): When set to False, the blocked User's statuses will not be included with the returned User object. Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the blocked user. """ return self._BlockMute(action='destroy', endpoint='block', user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, include_entities=include_entities, skip_status=skip_status)
[docs] def CreateMute(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, include_entities=True, skip_status=False): """Mutes the user specified by either user_id or screen_name. Args: user_id (int, optional) The numerical ID of the user to mute. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user to mute. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will not be included if set to False. skip_status (bool, optional): When set to False, the muted User's statuses will not be included with the returned User object. Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the muted user. """ return self._BlockMute(action='create', endpoint='mute', user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, include_entities=include_entities, skip_status=skip_status)
[docs] def DestroyMute(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, include_entities=True, skip_status=False): """Unlocks the user specified by either user_id or screen_name. Args: user_id (int, optional) The numerical ID of the user to mute. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user to mute. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will not be included if set to False. skip_status (bool, optional): When set to False, the muted User's statuses will not be included with the returned User object. Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the muted user. """ return self._BlockMute(action='destroy', endpoint='mute', user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, include_entities=include_entities, skip_status=skip_status)
def _GetIDsPaged(self, url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, stringify_ids, count): """ This is the lowest level paging logic for fetching IDs. It is used solely by GetFollowerIDsPaged and GetFriendIDsPaged. It is not intended for other use. See GetFollowerIDsPaged or GetFriendIDsPaged for an explanation of the input arguments. """ result = [] parameters = {} if user_id is not None: parameters['user_id'] = user_id if screen_name is not None: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if count is not None: parameters['count'] = count parameters['stringify_ids'] = stringify_ids parameters['cursor'] = cursor resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if 'ids' in data: result.extend([x for x in data['ids']]) next_cursor = data.get('next_cursor', 0) previous_cursor = data.get('previous_cursor', 0) return next_cursor, previous_cursor, result
[docs] def GetFollowerIDsPaged(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=-1, stringify_ids=False, count=5000): """Make a cursor driven call to return a list of one page followers. The caller is responsible for handling the cursor value and looping to gather all of the data Args: user_id: The twitter id of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. stringify_ids: if True then twitter will return the ids as strings instead of integers. [Optional] count: The number of user id's to retrieve per API request. Please be aware that this might get you rate-limited if set to a small number. By default Twitter will retrieve 5000 UIDs per call. [Optional] Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, data sequence of user ids, one for each follower """ url = '%s/followers/ids.json' % self.base_url return self._GetIDsPaged(url=url, user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, cursor=cursor, stringify_ids=stringify_ids, count=count)
[docs] def GetFriendIDsPaged(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=-1, stringify_ids=False, count=5000): """Make a cursor driven call to return the list of all friends The caller is responsible for handling the cursor value and looping to gather all of the data Args: user_id: The twitter id of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. stringify_ids: if True then twitter will return the ids as strings instead of integers. [Optional] count: The number of user id's to retrieve per API request. Please be aware that this might get you rate-limited if set to a small number. By default Twitter will retrieve 5000 UIDs per call. [Optional] Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, data sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend """ url = '%s/friends/ids.json' % self.base_url return self._GetIDsPaged(url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, stringify_ids, count)
def _GetFriendFollowerIDs(self, url=None, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=None, count=None, stringify_ids=False, total_count=None): """ Common method for GetFriendIDs and GetFollowerIDs """ count = 5000 cursor = -1 result = [] if total_count: total_count = enf_type('total_count', int, total_count) if total_count and total_count < count: count = total_count while True: if total_count is not None and len(result) + count > total_count: break next_cursor, previous_cursor, data = self._GetIDsPaged( url=url, user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, cursor=cursor, stringify_ids=stringify_ids, count=count) result.extend([x for x in data]) if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == previous_cursor: break else: cursor = next_cursor return result
[docs] def GetFollowerIDs(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=None, stringify_ids=False, count=None, total_count=None): """Returns a list of twitter user id's for every person that is following the specified user. Args: user_id: The id of the user to retrieve the id list for. [Optional] screen_name: The screen_name of the user to retrieve the id list for. [Optional] cursor: Specifies the Twitter API Cursor location to start at. Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional] stringify_ids: if True then twitter will return the ids as strings instead of integers. [Optional] count: The number of user id's to retrieve per API request. Please be aware that this might get you rate-limited if set to a small number. By default Twitter will retrieve 5000 UIDs per call. [Optional] total_count: The total amount of UIDs to retrieve. Good if the account has many followers and you don't want to get rate limited. The data returned might contain more UIDs if total_count is not a multiple of count (5000 by default). [Optional] Returns: A list of integers, one for each user id. """ url = '%s/followers/ids.json' % self.base_url return self._GetFriendFollowerIDs(url=url, user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, cursor=cursor, stringify_ids=stringify_ids, count=count, total_count=total_count)
[docs] def GetFriendIDs(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=None, count=None, stringify_ids=False, total_count=None): """ Fetch a sequence of user ids, one for each friend. Returns a list of all the given user's friends' IDs. If no user_id or screen_name is given, the friends will be those of the authenticated user. Args: user_id: The id of the user to retrieve the id list for. [Optional] screen_name: The screen_name of the user to retrieve the id list for. [Optional] cursor: Specifies the Twitter API Cursor location to start at. Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional] stringify_ids: if True then twitter will return the ids as strings instead of integers. [Optional] count: The number of user id's to retrieve per API request. Please be aware that this might get you rate-limited if set to a small number. By default Twitter will retrieve 5000 UIDs per call. [Optional] total_count: The total amount of UIDs to retrieve. Good if the account has many followers and you don't want to get rate limited. The data returned might contain more UIDs if total_count is not a multiple of count (5000 by default). [Optional] Returns: A list of integers, one for each user id. """ url = '%s/friends/ids.json' % self.base_url return self._GetFriendFollowerIDs(url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, count, stringify_ids, total_count)
def _GetFriendsFollowersPaged(self, url=None, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=-1, count=200, skip_status=False, include_user_entities=True): """Make a cursor driven call to return the list of 1 page of friends or followers. Args: url: Endpoint from which to get data. Either base_url+'/followers/list.json' or base_url+'/friends/list.json'. user_id: The twitter id of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. count: The number of users to return per page, up to a maximum of 200. Defaults to 200. [Optional] skip_status: If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. [Optional] include_user_entities: When True, the user entities will be included. [Optional] Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, data sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower """ if user_id and screen_name: warnings.warn( "If both user_id and screen_name are specified, Twitter will " "return the followers of the user specified by screen_name, " "however this behavior is undocumented by Twitter and might " "change without warning.", stacklevel=2) parameters = {} if user_id is not None: parameters['user_id'] = user_id if screen_name is not None: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name try: parameters['count'] = int(count) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "count must be an integer"}) parameters['skip_status'] = skip_status parameters['include_user_entities'] = include_user_entities parameters['cursor'] = cursor resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if 'users' in data: users = [User.NewFromJsonDict(user) for user in data['users']] else: users = [] if 'next_cursor' in data: next_cursor = data['next_cursor'] else: next_cursor = 0 if 'previous_cursor' in data: previous_cursor = data['previous_cursor'] else: previous_cursor = 0 return next_cursor, previous_cursor, users
[docs] def GetFollowersPaged(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=-1, count=200, skip_status=False, include_user_entities=True): """Make a cursor driven call to return the list of all followers Args: user_id: The twitter id of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. count: The number of users to return per page, up to a maximum of 200. Defaults to 200. [Optional] skip_status: If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. [Optional] include_user_entities: When True, the user entities will be included. [Optional] Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, data sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower """ url = '%s/followers/list.json' % self.base_url return self._GetFriendsFollowersPaged(url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, count, skip_status, include_user_entities)
[docs] def GetFriendsPaged(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=-1, count=200, skip_status=False, include_user_entities=True): """Make a cursor driven call to return the list of all friends. Args: user_id: The twitter id of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. count: The number of users to return per page, up to a current maximum of 200. Defaults to 200. [Optional] skip_status: If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. [Optional] include_user_entities: When True, the user entities will be included. [Optional] Returns: next_cursor, previous_cursor, data sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower """ url = '%s/friends/list.json' % self.base_url return self._GetFriendsFollowersPaged(url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, count, skip_status, include_user_entities)
def _GetFriendsFollowers(self, url=None, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=None, count=None, total_count=None, skip_status=False, include_user_entities=True): """ Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend or follower. Args: url: URL to get. Either base_url + ('/followers/list.json' or '/friends/list.json'). user_id: The twitter id of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. count: The number of users to return per page, up to a maximum of 200. Defaults to 200. [Optional] total_count: The upper bound of number of users to return, defaults to None. skip_status: If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. [Optional] include_user_entities: When True, the user entities will be included. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend or follower """ if cursor is not None or count is not None: warnings.warn( "Use of 'cursor' and 'count' parameters are deprecated as of " "python-twitter 3.0. Please use GetFriendsPaged or " "GetFollowersPaged instead.", PythonTwitterDeprecationWarning330) count = 200 cursor = -1 result = [] if total_count: try: total_count = int(total_count) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "total_count must be an integer"}) if total_count <= 200: count = total_count while True: if total_count is not None and len(result) + count > total_count: break next_cursor, previous_cursor, data = self._GetFriendsFollowersPaged( url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, count, skip_status, include_user_entities) if next_cursor: cursor = next_cursor result.extend(data) if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == previous_cursor: break return result
[docs] def GetFollowers(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=None, count=None, total_count=None, skip_status=False, include_user_entities=True): """Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower. If both user_id and screen_name are specified, this call will return the followers of the user specified by screen_name, however this behavior is undocumented by Twitter and may change without warning. Args: user_id: The twitter id of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose followers you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. count: The number of users to return per page, up to a maximum of 200. Defaults to 200. [Optional] total_count: The upper bound of number of users to return, defaults to None. skip_status: If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. [Optional] include_user_entities: When True, the user entities will be included. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower """ url = '%s/followers/list.json' % self.base_url return self._GetFriendsFollowers(url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, count, total_count, skip_status, include_user_entities)
[docs] def GetFriends(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=None, count=None, total_count=None, skip_status=False, include_user_entities=True): """Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend. If both user_id and screen_name are specified, this call will return the followers of the user specified by screen_name, however this behavior is undocumented by Twitter and may change without warning. Args: user_id: The twitter id of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] screen_name: The twitter name of the user whose friends you are fetching. If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional] cursor: Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. count: The number of users to return per page, up to a maximum of 200. Defaults to 200. [Optional] total_count: The upper bound of number of users to return, defaults to None. skip_status: If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. [Optional] include_user_entities: When True, the user entities will be included. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend """ url = '%s/friends/list.json' % self.base_url return self._GetFriendsFollowers(url, user_id, screen_name, cursor, count, total_count, skip_status, include_user_entities)
[docs] def UsersLookup(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, users=None, include_entities=True, return_json=False): """Fetch extended information for the specified users. Users may be specified either as lists of either user_ids, screen_names, or twitter.User objects. The list of users that are queried is the union of all specified parameters. No more than 100 users may be given per request. Args: user_id (int, list, optional): A list of user_ids to retrieve extended information. screen_name (str, list, optional): A list of screen_names to retrieve extended information. users (list, optional): A list of twitter.User objects to retrieve extended information. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node that may appear within embedded statuses will be excluded when set to False. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: A list of twitter.User objects for the requested users """ if not any([user_id, screen_name, users]): raise TwitterError("Specify at least one of user_id, screen_name, or users.") url = '%s/users/lookup.json' % self.base_url parameters = { 'include_entities': include_entities } uids = list() if user_id: uids.extend(user_id) if users: uids.extend([u.id for u in users]) if len(uids): parameters['user_id'] = ','.join([str(u) for u in uids]) if screen_name: parameters['screen_name'] = parse_arg_list(screen_name, 'screen_name') if len(uids) > 100: raise TwitterError("No more than 100 users may be requested per request.") resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [User.NewFromJsonDict(u) for u in data]
[docs] def GetUser(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, include_entities=True, return_json=False): """Returns a single user. Args: user_id (int, optional): The id of the user to retrieve. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user for whom to return results for. Either a user_id or screen_name is required for this method. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will be omitted when set to False. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: A twitter.User instance representing that user """ url = '%s/users/show.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = { 'include_entities': include_entities } if user_id: parameters['user_id'] = user_id elif screen_name: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name else: raise TwitterError("Specify at least one of user_id or screen_name.") resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def GetDirectMessages(self, since_id=None, max_id=None, count=None, include_entities=True, skip_status=False, full_text=False, page=None, return_json=False): """Returns a list of the direct messages sent to the authenticating user. Args: since_id: Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional] max_id: Returns results with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. [Optional] count: Specifies the number of direct messages to try and retrieve, up to a maximum of 200. The value of count is best thought of as a limit to the number of Tweets to return because suspended or deleted content is removed after the count has been applied. [Optional] include_entities: The entities node will be omitted when set to False. [Optional] skip_status: When set to True statuses will not be included in the returned user objects. [Optional] full_text: When set to True full message will be included in the returned message object if message length is bigger than CHARACTER_LIMIT characters. [Optional] page: If you want more than 200 messages, you can use this and get 20 messages each time. You must recall it and increment the page value until it return nothing. You can't use count option with it. First value is 1 and not 0. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: A sequence of twitter.DirectMessage instances """ url = '%s/direct_messages.json' % self.base_url parameters = { 'full_text': bool(full_text), 'include_entities': bool(include_entities), 'max_id': max_id, 'since_id': since_id, 'skip_status': bool(skip_status), } if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) if page: parameters['page'] = enf_type('page', int, page) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [DirectMessage.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def GetSentDirectMessages(self, since_id=None, max_id=None, count=None, page=None, include_entities=True, return_json=False): """Returns a list of the direct messages sent by the authenticating user. Args: since_id (int, optional): Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. max_id (int, optional): Returns results with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. count (int, optional): Specifies the number of direct messages to try and retrieve, up to a maximum of 200. The value of count is best thought of as a limit to the number of Tweets to return because suspended or deleted content is removed after the count has been applied. page (int, optional): Specifies the page of results to retrieve. Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional] include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will be omitted when set to False. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: A sequence of twitter.DirectMessage instances """ url = '%s/direct_messages/sent.json' % self.base_url parameters = { 'include_entities': bool(include_entities), 'max_id': max_id, 'since_id': since_id, } if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) if page: parameters['page'] = enf_type('page', int, page) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [DirectMessage.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def PostDirectMessage(self, text, user_id=None, media_file_path=None, media_type=None, screen_name=None, return_json=False): """Post a twitter direct message from the authenticated user. Args: text: The message text to be posted. user_id: The ID of the user who should receive the direct message. media_file_path: The file path to the media to be posted media_type: The media type. Accepted media types: dm_image, dm_gif or dm_video return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.DirectMessage Returns: A twitter.DirectMessage instance representing the message posted """ url = '%s/direct_messages/events/new.json' % self.base_url # Hack to allow some sort of backwards compatibility with older versions # part of the fix for Issue #587 if user_id is None and screen_name is not None: user_id = self.GetUser(screen_name=screen_name).id # Default message_data_value = { 'text': text } if media_file_path is not None: try: media = open(media_file_path, 'rb') except IOError: raise TwitterError({'message': 'Media file could not be opened.'}) response_media_id = self.UploadMediaChunked(media=media, media_category=media_type) # With media message_data_value = { 'text': text, "attachment": { "type": "media", "media": { "id": response_media_id } } } event = { 'event': { 'type': 'message_create', 'message_create': { 'target': { 'recipient_id': user_id }, 'message_data': message_data_value } } } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', json=event) data = resp.json() if return_json: return data else: dm = DirectMessage( created_at=data['event']['created_timestamp'], id=data['event']['id'], recipient_id=data['event']['message_create']['target']['recipient_id'], sender_id=data['event']['message_create']['sender_id'], text=data['event']['message_create']['message_data']['text'], ) dm._json = data return dm
[docs] def DestroyDirectMessage(self, message_id, include_entities=True, return_json=False): """Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter. The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated, and the authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct message. Args: message_id: The id of the direct message to be destroyed return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: A twitter.DirectMessage instance representing the message destroyed """ url = '%s/direct_messages/destroy.json' % self.base_url data = { 'id': enf_type('message_id', int, message_id), 'include_entities': enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return DirectMessage.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def CreateFriendship(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, follow=True, retweets=True, **kwargs): """Befriends the user specified by the user_id or screen_name. Args: user_id (int, optional): A user_id to follow screen_name (str, optional) A screen_name to follow follow (bool, optional): Set to False to disable notifications for the target user retweets (bool, optional): Enable or disable retweets from the target user. Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the befriended user. """ return self._AddOrEditFriendship(user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, follow=follow, retweets=retweets, **kwargs)
def _AddOrEditFriendship(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, uri_end='create', follow_key='follow', follow=True, **kwargs): """Shared method for Create/Update Friendship.""" url = '%s/friendships/%s.json' % (self.base_url, uri_end) data = {} if user_id: data['user_id'] = user_id elif screen_name: data['screen_name'] = screen_name else: raise TwitterError("Specify at least one of user_id or screen_name.") follow_json = json.dumps(follow) data['{}'.format(follow_key)] = follow_json data.update(**kwargs) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def UpdateFriendship(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, follow=True, retweets=True, **kwargs): """Updates a friendship with the user specified by the user_id or screen_name. Args: user_id (int, optional): A user_id to update screen_name (str, optional): A screen_name to update follow (bool, optional): Set to False to disable notifications for the target user retweets (bool, optional): Enable or disable retweets from the target user. device: Set to False to disable notifications for the target user Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the befriended user. """ return self._AddOrEditFriendship(user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, follow=follow, follow_key='device', retweets=retweets, uri_end='update', **kwargs)
[docs] def DestroyFriendship(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None): """Discontinues friendship with a user_id or screen_name. Args: user_id: A user_id to unfollow [Optional] screen_name: A screen_name to unfollow [Optional] Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the discontinued friend. """ url = '%s/friendships/destroy.json' % self.base_url data = {} if user_id: data['user_id'] = user_id elif screen_name: data['screen_name'] = screen_name else: raise TwitterError("Specify at least one of user_id or screen_name.") resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def ShowFriendship(self, source_user_id=None, source_screen_name=None, target_user_id=None, target_screen_name=None): """Returns information about the relationship between the two users. Args: source_id: The user_id of the subject user [Optional] source_screen_name: The screen_name of the subject user [Optional] target_id: The user_id of the target user [Optional] target_screen_name: The screen_name of the target user [Optional] Returns: A Twitter Json structure. """ url = '%s/friendships/show.json' % self.base_url data = {} if source_user_id: data['source_id'] = source_user_id elif source_screen_name: data['source_screen_name'] = source_screen_name else: raise TwitterError({'message': "Specify at least one of source_user_id or source_screen_name."}) if target_user_id: data['target_id'] = target_user_id elif target_screen_name: data['target_screen_name'] = target_screen_name else: raise TwitterError({'message': "Specify at least one of target_user_id or target_screen_name."}) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return data
[docs] def LookupFriendship(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, return_json=False): """Lookup friendship status for user to authed user. Users may be specified either as lists of either user_ids, screen_names, or twitter.User objects. The list of users that are queried is the union of all specified parameters. Up to 100 users may be specified. Args: user_id (int, User, or list of ints or Users, optional): A list of user_ids to retrieve extended information. screen_name (string, User, or list of strings or Users, optional): A list of screen_names to retrieve extended information. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: list: A list of twitter.UserStatus instance representing the friendship status between the specified users and the authenticated user. """ url = '%s/friendships/lookup.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} if user_id: if isinstance(user_id, (list, tuple)): uids = list() for user in user_id: if isinstance(user, User): uids.append(user.id) else: uids.append(enf_type('user_id', int, user)) parameters['user_id'] = ",".join([str(uid) for uid in uids]) else: if isinstance(user_id, User): parameters['user_id'] = user_id.id else: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) if screen_name: if isinstance(screen_name, (list, tuple)): sn_list = list() for user in screen_name: if isinstance(user, User): sn_list.append(user.screen_name) else: sn_list.append(enf_type('screen_name', str, user)) parameters['screen_name'] = ','.join(sn_list) else: if isinstance(screen_name, User): parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name.screen_name else: parameters['screen_name'] = enf_type('screen_name', str, screen_name) if not user_id and not screen_name: raise TwitterError("Specify at least one of user_id or screen_name.") resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [UserStatus.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def IncomingFriendship(self, cursor=None, stringify_ids=None): """Returns a collection of user IDs belonging to users who have pending request to follow the authenticated user. Args: cursor: breaks the ids into pages of no more than 5000. stringify_ids: returns the IDs as unicode strings. [Optional] Returns: A list of user IDs """ url = '%s/friendships/incoming.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} if stringify_ids: parameters['stringify_ids'] = 'true' result = [] total_count = 0 while True: if cursor: try: parameters['count'] = int(cursor) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "cursor must be an integer"}) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) result += [x for x in data['ids']] if 'next_cursor' in data: if data['next_cursor'] == 0 or data['next_cursor'] == data['previous_cursor']: break else: cursor = data['next_cursor'] total_count -= len(data['ids']) if total_count < 1: break else: break return result
[docs] def OutgoingFriendship(self, cursor=None, stringify_ids=None): """Returns a collection of user IDs for every protected user for whom the authenticated user has a pending follow request. Args: cursor: breaks the ids into pages of no more than 5000. stringify_ids: returns the IDs as unicode strings. [Optional] Returns: A list of user IDs """ url = '%s/friendships/outgoing.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} if stringify_ids: parameters['stringify_ids'] = 'true' result = [] total_count = 0 while True: if cursor: try: parameters['count'] = int(cursor) except ValueError: raise TwitterError({'message': "cursor must be an integer"}) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) result += [x for x in data['ids']] if 'next_cursor' in data: if data['next_cursor'] == 0 or data['next_cursor'] == data['previous_cursor']: break else: cursor = data['next_cursor'] total_count -= len(data['ids']) if total_count < 1: break else: break return result
[docs] def CreateFavorite(self, status=None, status_id=None, include_entities=True): """Favorites the specified status object or id as the authenticating user. Returns the favorite status when successful. Args: status_id (int, optional): The id of the twitter status to mark as a favorite. status (twitter.Status, optional): The twitter.Status object to mark as a favorite. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will be omitted when set to False. Returns: A twitter.Status instance representing the newly-marked favorite. """ url = '%s/favorites/create.json' % self.base_url data = {} if status_id: data['id'] = status_id elif status: data['id'] = status.id else: raise TwitterError({'message': "Specify status_id or status"}) data['include_entities'] = enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def DestroyFavorite(self, status=None, status_id=None, include_entities=True): """Un-Favorites the specified status object or id as the authenticating user. Returns the un-favorited status when successful. Args: status_id (int, optional): The id of the twitter status to mark as a favorite. status (twitter.Status, optional): The twitter.Status object to mark as a favorite. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will be omitted when set to False. Returns: A twitter.Status instance representing the newly-unmarked favorite. """ url = '%s/favorites/destroy.json' % self.base_url data = {} if status_id: data['id'] = status_id elif status: data['id'] = status.id else: raise TwitterError({'message': "Specify status_id or status"}) data['include_entities'] = enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def GetFavorites(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, count=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, include_entities=True, return_json=False): """Return a list of Status objects representing favorited tweets. Returns up to 200 most recent tweets for the authenticated user. Args: user_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the favorites. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid user ID is also a valid screen name. screen_name (str, optional): Specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the favorites. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid screen name is also a user ID. since_id (int, optional): Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. max_id (int, optional): Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. count (int, optional): Specifies the number of statuses to retrieve. May not be greater than 200. include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will be omitted when set to False. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: A sequence of Status instances, one for each favorited tweet up to count """ parameters = {} url = '%s/favorites/list.json' % self.base_url if user_id: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if since_id: parameters['since_id'] = enf_type('since_id', int, since_id) if max_id: parameters['max_id'] = enf_type('max_id', int, max_id) if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) parameters['include_entities'] = enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def GetMentions(self, count=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, trim_user=False, contributor_details=False, include_entities=True, return_json=False): """Returns the 20 most recent mentions (status containing @screen_name) for the authenticating user. Args: count: Specifies the number of tweets to try and retrieve, up to a maximum of 200. The value of count is best thought of as a limit to the number of tweets to return because suspended or deleted content is removed after the count has been applied. [Optional] since_id: Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional] max_id: Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is, older than) the specified ID. [Optional] trim_user: When set to True, each tweet returned in a timeline will include a user object including only the status authors numerical ID. Omit this parameter to receive the complete user object. [Optional] contributor_details: If set to True, this parameter enhances the contributors element of the status response to include the screen_name of the contributor. By default only the user_id of the contributor is included. [Optional] include_entities: The entities node will be disincluded when set to False. [Optional] return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each mention of the user. """ url = '%s/statuses/mentions_timeline.json' % self.base_url parameters = { 'contributor_details': bool(contributor_details), 'include_entities': bool(include_entities), 'max_id': max_id, 'since_id': since_id, 'trim_user': bool(trim_user), } if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
@staticmethod def _IDList(list_id, slug, owner_id, owner_screen_name): parameters = {} if list_id is not None: parameters['list_id'] = enf_type('list_id', int, list_id) elif slug is not None: parameters['slug'] = slug if owner_id is not None: parameters['owner_id'] = enf_type('owner_id', int, owner_id) elif owner_screen_name is not None: parameters['owner_screen_name'] = owner_screen_name else: raise TwitterError({'message': ( 'If specifying a list by slug, an owner_id or ' 'owner_screen_name must also be given.')}) else: raise TwitterError({'message': ( 'Either list_id or slug and one of owner_id and ' 'owner_screen_name must be passed.')}) return parameters
[docs] def CreateList(self, name, mode=None, description=None): """Creates a new list with the give name for the authenticated user. Args: name (str): New name for the list mode (str, optional): 'public' or 'private'. Defaults to 'public'. description (str, optional): Description of the list. Returns: twitter.list.List: A twitter.List instance representing the new list """ url = '%s/lists/create.json' % self.base_url parameters = {'name': name} if mode is not None: parameters['mode'] = mode if description is not None: parameters['description'] = description resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def DestroyList(self, owner_screen_name=None, owner_id=None, list_id=None, slug=None): """Destroys the list identified by list_id or slug and one of owner_screen_name or owner_id. Args: owner_screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. owner_id (int, optional): The user ID of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. list_id (int, optional): The numerical id of the list. slug (str, optional): You can identify a list by its slug instead of its numerical id. If you decide to do so, note that you'll also have to specify the list owner using the owner_id or owner_screen_name parameters. Returns: twitter.list.List: A twitter.List instance representing the removed list. """ url = '%s/lists/destroy.json' % self.base_url parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def CreateSubscription(self, owner_screen_name=None, owner_id=None, list_id=None, slug=None): """Creates a subscription to a list by the authenticated user. Args: owner_screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. owner_id (int, optional): The user ID of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. list_id (int, optional): The numerical id of the list. slug (str, optional): You can identify a list by its slug instead of its numerical id. If you decide to do so, note that you'll also have to specify the list owner using the owner_id or owner_screen_name parameters. Returns: twitter.user.User: A twitter.User instance representing the user subscribed """ url = '%s/lists/subscribers/create.json' % self.base_url parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def DestroySubscription(self, owner_screen_name=None, owner_id=None, list_id=None, slug=None): """Destroys the subscription to a list for the authenticated user. Args: owner_screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. owner_id (int, optional): The user ID of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. list_id (int, optional): The numerical id of the list. slug (str, optional): You can identify a list by its slug instead of its numerical id. If you decide to do so, note that you'll also have to specify the list owner using the owner_id or owner_screen_name parameters. Returns: twitter.list.List: A twitter.List instance representing the removed list. """ url = '%s/lists/subscribers/destroy.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def ShowSubscription(self, owner_screen_name=None, owner_id=None, list_id=None, slug=None, user_id=None, screen_name=None, include_entities=False, skip_status=False, return_json=False): """Check if the specified user is a subscriber of the specified list. Returns the user if they are subscriber. Args: owner_screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. owner_id (int, optional): The user ID of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. list_id (int, optional): The numerical ID of the list. slug (str, optional): You can identify a list by its slug instead of its numerical ID. If you decide to do so, note that you'll also have to specify the list owner using the owner_id or owner_screen_name parameters. user_id (int, optional): The user_id or a list of user_id's to add to the list. If not given, then screen_name is required. screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name or a list of screen_name's to add to the list. If not given, then user_id is required. include_entities (bool, optional): If False, the timeline will not contain additional metadata. Defaults to True. skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: twitter.user.User: A twitter.User instance representing the user requested. """ url = '%s/lists/subscribers/show.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) if user_id: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if skip_status: parameters['skip_status'] = True if include_entities: parameters['include_entities'] = True resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def GetSubscriptions(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, count=20, cursor=-1, return_json=False): """Obtain a collection of the lists the specified user is subscribed to. If neither user_id or screen_name is specified, the data returned will be for the authenticated user. The list will contain a maximum of 20 lists per page by default. Does not include the user's own lists. Args: user_id (int, optional): The ID of the user for whom to return results for. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user for whom to return results for. count (int, optional): The amount of results to return per page. No more than 1000 results will ever be returned in a single page. Defaults to 20. cursor (int, optional): The "page" value that Twitter will use to start building the list sequence from. Use the value of -1 to start at the beginning. Twitter will return in the result the values for next_cursor and previous_cursor. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: twitter.list.List: A sequence of twitter.List instances, one for each list """ url = '%s/lists/subscriptions.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} parameters['cursor'] = enf_type('cursor', int, cursor) parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) if user_id is not None: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name is not None: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [List.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data['lists']]
[docs] def GetMemberships(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, count=20, cursor=-1, filter_to_owned_lists=False, return_json=False): """Obtain the lists the specified user is a member of. If no user_id or screen_name is specified, the data returned will be for the authenticated user. Returns a maximum of 20 lists per page by default. Args: user_id (int, optional): The ID of the user for whom to return results for. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user for whom to return results for. count (int, optional): The amount of results to return per page. No more than 1000 results will ever be returned in a single page. Defaults to 20. cursor (int, optional): The "page" value that Twitter will use to start building the list sequence from. Use the value of -1 to start at the beginning. Twitter will return in the result the values for next_cursor and previous_cursor. filter_to_owned_lists (bool, optional): Set to True to return only the lists the authenticating user owns, and the user specified by user_id or screen_name is a member of. Default value is False. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: list: A list of twitter.List instances, one for each list in which the user specified by user_id or screen_name is a member """ url = '%s/lists/memberships.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} if cursor is not None: parameters['cursor'] = enf_type('cursor', int, cursor) if count is not None: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) if filter_to_owned_lists: parameters['filter_to_owned_lists'] = enf_type( 'filter_to_owned_lists', bool, filter_to_owned_lists) if user_id is not None: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name is not None: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [List.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data['lists']]
[docs] def GetListsList(self, screen_name=None, user_id=None, reverse=False, return_json=False): """Returns all lists the user subscribes to, including their own. If no user_id or screen_name is specified, the data returned will be for the authenticated user. Args: screen_name (str, optional): Specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid screen name is also a user ID. user_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid user ID is also a valid screen name. reverse (bool, optional): If False, the owned lists will be returned first, othewise subscribed lists will be at the top. Returns a maximum of 100 entries regardless. Defaults to False. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: list: A sequence of twitter.List instances. """ url = '%s/lists/list.json' % (self.base_url) parameters = {} if user_id: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if reverse: parameters['reverse'] = enf_type('reverse', bool, reverse) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [List.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def GetListTimeline(self, list_id=None, slug=None, owner_id=None, owner_screen_name=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, count=None, include_rts=True, include_entities=True, return_json=False): """Fetch the sequence of Status messages for a given List ID. Args: list_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the list to retrieve. slug (str, optional): The slug name for the list to retrieve. If you specify None for the list_id, then you have to provide either a owner_screen_name or owner_id. owner_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the list timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid user ID is also a valid screen name. owner_screen_name (str, optional): Specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid screen name is also a user ID. since_id (int, optional): Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of Tweets has occurred since the since_id, the since_id will be forced to the oldest ID available. max_id (int, optional): Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is, older than) or equal to the specified ID. count (int, optional): Specifies the number of statuses to retrieve. May not be greater than 200. include_rts (bool, optional): If True, the timeline will contain native retweets (if they exist) in addition to the standard stream of tweets. include_entities (bool, optional): If False, the timeline will not contain additional metadata. Defaults to True. return_json (bool, optional): If True JSON data will be returned, instead of twitter.User Returns: list: A list of twitter.status.Status instances, one for each message up to count. """ url = '%s/lists/statuses.json' % self.base_url parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) if since_id: parameters['since_id'] = enf_type('since_id', int, since_id) if max_id: parameters['max_id'] = enf_type('max_id', int, max_id) if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) if not include_rts: parameters['include_rts'] = enf_type('include_rts', bool, include_rts) if not include_entities: parameters['include_entities'] = enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) if return_json: return data else: return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
[docs] def GetListMembersPaged(self, list_id=None, slug=None, owner_id=None, owner_screen_name=None, cursor=-1, count=100, skip_status=False, include_entities=True): """Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each member of the given list_id or slug. Args: list_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the list to retrieve. slug (str, optional): The slug name for the list to retrieve. If you specify None for the list_id, then you have to provide either a owner_screen_name or owner_id. owner_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the list timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid user ID is also a valid screen name. owner_screen_name (str, optional): Specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid screen name is also a user ID. cursor (int, optional): Should be set to -1 for the initial call and then is used to control what result page Twitter returns. skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. include_entities (bool, optional): If False, the timeline will not contain additional metadata. Defaults to True. Returns: list: A sequence of twitter.user.User instances, one for each member of the twitter.list.List. """ url = '%s/lists/members.json' % self.base_url parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) if count: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) if cursor: parameters['cursor'] = enf_type('cursor', int, cursor) parameters['skip_status'] = enf_type('skip_status', bool, skip_status) parameters['include_entities'] = enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) next_cursor = data.get('next_cursor', 0) previous_cursor = data.get('previous_cursor', 0) users = [User.NewFromJsonDict(user) for user in data.get('users', [])] return next_cursor, previous_cursor, users
[docs] def GetListMembers(self, list_id=None, slug=None, owner_id=None, owner_screen_name=None, skip_status=False, include_entities=False): """Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each member of the given list_id or slug. Args: list_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the list to retrieve. slug (str, optional): The slug name for the list to retrieve. If you specify None for the list_id, then you have to provide either a owner_screen_name or owner_id. owner_id (int, optional): Specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the list timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid user ID is also a valid screen name. owner_screen_name (str, optional): Specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid screen name is also a user ID. skip_status (bool, optional): If True the statuses will not be returned in the user items. include_entities (bool, optional): If False, the timeline will not contain additional metadata. Defaults to True. Returns: list: A sequence of twitter.user.User instances, one for each member of the twitter.list.List. """ cursor = -1 result = [] while True: next_cursor, previous_cursor, users = self.GetListMembersPaged( list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name, cursor=cursor, skip_status=skip_status, include_entities=include_entities) result += users if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == previous_cursor: break else: cursor = next_cursor return result
[docs] def CreateListsMember(self, list_id=None, slug=None, user_id=None, screen_name=None, owner_screen_name=None, owner_id=None): """Add a new member (or list of members) to the specified list. Args: list_id (int, optional): The numerical id of the list. slug (str, optional): You can identify a list by its slug instead of its numerical id. If you decide to do so, note that you'll also have to specify the list owner using the owner_id or owner_screen_name parameters. user_id (int, optional): The user_id or a list of user_id's to add to the list. If not given, then screen_name is required. screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name or a list of screen_name's to add to the list. If not given, then user_id is required. owner_screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. owner_id (int, optional): The user ID of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. Returns: twitter.list.List: A twitter.List instance representing the list subscribed to. """ is_list = False parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) if user_id: if isinstance(user_id, list) or isinstance(user_id, tuple): is_list = True uids = [str(enf_type('user_id', int, uid)) for uid in user_id] parameters['user_id'] = ','.join(uids) else: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name: if isinstance(screen_name, list) or isinstance(screen_name, tuple): is_list = True parameters['screen_name'] = ','.join(screen_name) else: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if is_list: url = '%s/lists/members/create_all.json' % self.base_url else: url = '%s/lists/members/create.json' % self.base_url resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def DestroyListsMember(self, list_id=None, slug=None, owner_screen_name=None, owner_id=None, user_id=None, screen_name=None): """Destroys the subscription to a list for the authenticated user. Args: list_id (int, optional): The numerical id of the list. slug (str, optional): You can identify a list by its slug instead of its numerical id. If you decide to do so, note that you'll also have to specify the list owner using the owner_id or owner_screen_name parameters. owner_screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. owner_id (int, optional): The user ID of the user who owns the list being requested by a slug. user_id (int, optional): The user_id or a list of user_id's to remove from the list. If not given, then screen_name is required. screen_name (str, optional): The screen_name or a list of Screen_name's to remove from the list. If not given, then user_id is required. Returns: twitter.list.List: A twitter.List instance representing the removed list. """ is_list = False parameters = {} parameters.update(self._IDList(list_id=list_id, slug=slug, owner_id=owner_id, owner_screen_name=owner_screen_name)) if user_id: if isinstance(user_id, list) or isinstance(user_id, tuple): is_list = True uids = [str(enf_type('user_id', int, uid)) for uid in user_id] parameters['user_id'] = ','.join(uids) else: parameters['user_id'] = int(user_id) elif screen_name: if isinstance(screen_name, list) or isinstance(screen_name, tuple): is_list = True parameters['screen_name'] = ','.join(screen_name) else: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if is_list: url = '%s/lists/members/destroy_all.json' % self.base_url else: url = '%s/lists/members/destroy.json' % self.base_url resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def GetListsPaged(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, cursor=-1, count=20): """ Fetch the sequence of lists for a user. If no user_id or screen_name is passed, the data returned will be for the authenticated user. Args: user_id (int, optional): The ID of the user for whom to return results for. screen_name (str, optional): The screen name of the user for whom to return results for. count (int, optional): The amount of results to return per page. No more than 1000 results will ever be returned in a single page. Defaults to 20. cursor (int, optional): The "page" value that Twitter will use to start building the list sequence from. Use the value of -1 to start at the beginning. Twitter will return in the result the values for next_cursor and previous_cursor. Returns: next_cursor (int), previous_cursor (int), list of twitter.List instances, one for each list """ url = '%s/lists/ownerships.json' % self.base_url parameters = {} if user_id is not None: parameters['user_id'] = enf_type('user_id', int, user_id) elif screen_name is not None: parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name if count is not None: parameters['count'] = enf_type('count', int, count) parameters['cursor'] = enf_type('cursor', int, cursor) resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data=parameters) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) next_cursor = data.get('next_cursor', 0) previous_cursor = data.get('previous_cursor', 0) lists = [List.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data.get('lists', [])] return next_cursor, previous_cursor, lists
[docs] def GetLists(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None): """Fetch the sequence of lists for a user. If no user_id or screen_name is passed, the data returned will be for the authenticated user. Args: user_id: The ID of the user for whom to return results for. [Optional] screen_name: The screen name of the user for whom to return results for. [Optional] count: The amount of results to return per page. No more than 1000 results will ever be returned in a single page. Defaults to 20. [Optional] cursor: The "page" value that Twitter will use to start building the list sequence from. Use the value of -1 to start at the beginning. Twitter will return in the result the values for next_cursor and previous_cursor. [Optional] Returns: A sequence of twitter.List instances, one for each list """ result = [] cursor = -1 while True: next_cursor, prev_cursor, lists = self.GetListsPaged( user_id=user_id, screen_name=screen_name, cursor=cursor) result += lists if next_cursor == 0 or next_cursor == prev_cursor: break else: cursor = next_cursor return result
[docs] def UpdateProfile(self, name=None, profileURL=None, location=None, description=None, profile_link_color=None, include_entities=False, skip_status=False): """Update's the authenticated user's profile data. Args: name (str, optional): Full name associated with the profile. profileURL (str, optional): URL associated with the profile. Will be prepended with "http://" if not present. location (str, optional): The city or country describing where the user of the account is located. The contents are not normalized or geocoded in any way. description (str, optional): A description of the user owning the account. profile_link_color (str, optional): hex value of profile color theme. formated without '#' or '0x'. Ex: FF00FF include_entities (bool, optional): The entities node will be omitted when set to False. skip_status (bool, optional): When set to either True, t or 1 then statuses will not be included in the returned user objects. Returns: A twitter.User instance representing the modified user. """ url = '%s/account/update_profile.json' % (self.base_url) data = { 'name': name, 'url': profileURL, 'location': location, 'description': description, 'profile_link_color': profile_link_color, 'include_entities': include_entities, 'skip_status': skip_status, } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def UpdateImage(self, image, include_entities=False, skip_status=False): """Update a User's profile image. Change may not be immediately reflected due to image processing on Twitter's side. Args: image (str): Location of local image file to use. include_entities (bool, optional): Include the entities node in the return data. skip_status (bool, optional): Include the User's last Status in the User entity returned. Returns: (twitter.models.User): Updated User object. """ url = '%s/account/update_profile_image.json' % (self.base_url) with open(image, 'rb') as image_file: encoded_image = base64.b64encode(image_file.read()) data = { 'image': encoded_image } if include_entities: data['include_entities'] = 1 if skip_status: data['skip_status'] = 1 resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) if resp.status_code in [200, 201, 202]: return True if resp.status_code == 400: raise TwitterError({'message': "Image data could not be processed"}) if resp.status_code == 422: raise TwitterError({'message': "The image could not be resized or is too large."})
[docs] def UpdateBanner(self, image, include_entities=False, skip_status=False): """Updates the authenticated users profile banner. Args: image: Location of image in file system include_entities: If True, each tweet will include a node called "entities." This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a discrete structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and hashtags. [Optional] Returns: A twitter.List instance representing the list subscribed to """ url = '%s/account/update_profile_banner.json' % (self.base_url) with open(image, 'rb') as image_file: encoded_image = base64.b64encode(image_file.read()) data = { # When updated for API v1.1 use image, not banner # https://dev.twitter.com/docs/api/1.1/post/account/update_profile_banner # 'image': encoded_image 'banner': encoded_image } if include_entities: data['include_entities'] = 1 if skip_status: data['skip_status'] = 1 resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'POST', data=data) if resp.status_code in [200, 201, 202]: return True if resp.status_code == 400: raise TwitterError({'message': "Image data could not be processed"}) if resp.status_code == 422: raise TwitterError({'message': "The image could not be resized or is too large."}) raise TwitterError({'message': "Unkown banner image upload issue"})
[docs] def GetStreamSample(self, delimited=False, stall_warnings=True): """Returns a small sample of public statuses. Args: delimited: Specifies a message length. [Optional] stall_warnings: Set to True to have Twitter deliver stall warnings. [Optional] Returns: A Twitter stream """ url = '%s/statuses/sample.json' % self.stream_url parameters = { 'delimited': bool(delimited), 'stall_warnings': bool(stall_warnings) } resp = self._RequestStream(url, 'GET', data=parameters) for line in resp.iter_lines(): if line: data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(line.decode('utf-8')) yield data
[docs] def GetStreamFilter(self, follow=None, track=None, locations=None, languages=None, delimited=None, stall_warnings=None, filter_level=None): """Returns a filtered view of public statuses. Args: follow: A list of user IDs to track. [Optional] track: A list of expressions to track. [Optional] locations: A list of Longitude,Latitude pairs (as strings) specifying bounding boxes for the tweets' origin. [Optional] delimited: Specifies a message length. [Optional] stall_warnings: Set to True to have Twitter deliver stall warnings. [Optional] languages: A list of Languages. Will only return Tweets that have been detected as being written in the specified languages. [Optional] filter_level: Specifies level of filtering applied to stream. Set to None, 'low' or 'medium'. [Optional] Returns: A twitter stream """ if all((follow is None, track is None, locations is None)): raise ValueError({'message': "No filter parameters specified."}) url = '%s/statuses/filter.json' % self.stream_url data = {} if follow is not None: data['follow'] = ','.join(follow) if track is not None: data['track'] = ','.join(track) if locations is not None: data['locations'] = ','.join(locations) if delimited is not None: data['delimited'] = str(delimited) if stall_warnings is not None: data['stall_warnings'] = str(stall_warnings) if languages is not None: data['language'] = ','.join(languages) if filter_level is not None: data['filter_level'] = filter_level resp = self._RequestStream(url, 'POST', data=data) for line in resp.iter_lines(): if line: data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(line.decode('utf-8')) yield data
[docs] def GetUserStream(self, replies='all', withuser='user', track=None, locations=None, delimited=None, stall_warnings=None, stringify_friend_ids=False, filter_level=None, session=None, include_keepalive=False): """Returns the data from the user stream. Args: replies: Specifies whether to return additional @replies in the stream. Defaults to 'all'. withuser: Specifies whether to return information for just the authenticating user, or include messages from accounts the user follows. [Optional] track: A list of expressions to track. [Optional] locations: A list of Latitude,Longitude pairs (as strings) specifying bounding boxes for the tweets' origin. [Optional] delimited: Specifies a message length. [Optional] stall_warnings: Set to True to have Twitter deliver stall warnings. [Optional] stringify_friend_ids: Specifies whether to send the friends list preamble as an array of integers or an array of strings. [Optional] filter_level: Specifies level of filtering applied to stream. Set to None, low or medium. [Optional] Returns: A twitter stream """ url = 'https://userstream.twitter.com/1.1/user.json' data = {} if stringify_friend_ids: data['stringify_friend_ids'] = 'true' if replies is not None: data['replies'] = replies if withuser is not None: data['with'] = withuser if track is not None: data['track'] = ','.join(track) if locations is not None: data['locations'] = ','.join(locations) if delimited is not None: data['delimited'] = str(delimited) if stall_warnings is not None: data['stall_warnings'] = str(stall_warnings) if filter_level is not None: data['filter_level'] = filter_level resp = self._RequestStream(url, 'POST', data=data, session=session) # The Twitter streaming API sends keep-alive newlines every 30s if there has not been other # traffic, and specifies that streams should only be reset after three keep-alive ticks. # # The original implementation of this API didn't expose keep-alive signals to the user, # making it difficult to determine whether the connection should be hung up or not. # # https://dev.twitter.com/streaming/overview/connecting for line in resp.iter_lines(): if line: data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(line.decode('utf-8')) yield data elif include_keepalive: yield None
[docs] def VerifyCredentials(self, include_entities=None, skip_status=None, include_email=None): """Returns a twitter.User instance if the authenticating user is valid. Args: include_entities: Specifies whether to return additional @replies in the stream. skip_status: When set to either true, t or 1 statuses will not be included in the returned user object. include_email: Use of this parameter requires whitelisting. When set to true email will be returned in the user objects as a string. If the user does not have an email address on their account, or if the email address is un-verified, null will be returned. If your app is not whitelisted, then the 'email' key will not be present in the json response. Returns: A twitter.User instance representing that user if the credentials are valid, None otherwise. """ url = '%s/account/verify_credentials.json' % self.base_url data = { 'include_entities': enf_type('include_entities', bool, include_entities), 'skip_status': enf_type('skip_status', bool, skip_status), 'include_email': 'true' if enf_type('include_email', bool, include_email) else 'false', } resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET', data) data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
[docs] def SetCache(self, cache): """Override the default cache. Set to None to prevent caching. Args: cache: An instance that supports the same API as the twitter._FileCache """ if cache == DEFAULT_CACHE: self._cache = _FileCache() else: self._cache = cache
[docs] def SetUrllib(self, urllib): """Override the default urllib implementation. Args: urllib: An instance that supports the same API as the urllib2 module """ self._urllib = urllib
[docs] def SetCacheTimeout(self, cache_timeout): """Override the default cache timeout. Args: cache_timeout: Time, in seconds, that responses should be reused. """ self._cache_timeout = cache_timeout
[docs] def SetUserAgent(self, user_agent): """Override the default user agent. Args: user_agent: A string that should be send to the server as the user-agent. """ self._request_headers['User-Agent'] = user_agent
[docs] def SetXTwitterHeaders(self, client, url, version): """Set the X-Twitter HTTP headers that will be sent to the server. Args: client: The client name as a string. Will be sent to the server as the 'X-Twitter-Client' header. url: The URL of the meta.xml as a string. Will be sent to the server as the 'X-Twitter-Client-URL' header. version: The client version as a string. Will be sent to the server as the 'X-Twitter-Client-Version' header. """ self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client'] = client self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client-URL'] = url self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client-Version'] = version
[docs] def SetSource(self, source): """Suggest the "from source" value to be displayed on the Twitter web site. The value of the 'source' parameter must be first recognized by the Twitter server. New source values are authorized on a case by case basis by the Twitter development team. Args: source: The source name as a string. Will be sent to the server as the 'source' parameter. """ self._default_params['source'] = source
[docs] def InitializeRateLimit(self): """ Make a call to the Twitter API to get the rate limit status for the currently authenticated user or application. Returns: None. """ _sleep = self.sleep_on_rate_limit if self.sleep_on_rate_limit: self.sleep_on_rate_limit = False url = '%s/application/rate_limit_status.json' % self.base_url resp = self._RequestUrl(url, 'GET') # No-Cache data = self._ParseAndCheckTwitter(resp.content.decode('utf-8')) self.sleep_on_rate_limit = _sleep self.rate_limit = RateLimit(**data)
[docs] def CheckRateLimit(self, url): """ Checks a URL to see the rate limit status for that endpoint. Args: url (str): URL to check against the current rate limits. Returns: namedtuple: EndpointRateLimit namedtuple. """ if not self.rate_limit.__dict__.get('resources', None): self.InitializeRateLimit() if url: limit = self.rate_limit.get_limit(url) return limit
def _BuildUrl(self, url, path_elements=None, extra_params=None): # Break url into constituent parts (scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment) = urlparse(url) # Add any additional path elements to the path if path_elements: # Filter out the path elements that have a value of None filtered_elements = [i for i in path_elements if i] if not path.endswith('/'): path += '/' path += '/'.join(filtered_elements) # Add any additional query parameters to the query string if extra_params and len(extra_params) > 0: extra_query = self._EncodeParameters(extra_params) # Add it to the existing query if query: query += '&' + extra_query else: query = extra_query # Return the rebuilt URL return urlunparse((scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment)) def _InitializeRequestHeaders(self, request_headers): if request_headers: self._request_headers = request_headers else: self._request_headers = {} def _InitializeUserAgent(self): user_agent = 'Python-urllib/%s (python-twitter/%s)' % \ (urllib_version, __version__) self.SetUserAgent(user_agent) def _InitializeDefaultParameters(self): self._default_params = {} @staticmethod def _DecompressGzippedResponse(response): raw_data = response.read() if response.headers.get('content-encoding', None) == 'gzip': url_data = gzip.GzipFile(fileobj=io.StringIO(raw_data)).read() else: url_data = raw_data return url_data @staticmethod def _EncodeParameters(parameters): """Return a string in key=value&key=value form. Values of None are not included in the output string. Args: parameters (dict): dictionary of query parameters to be converted into a string for encoding and sending to Twitter. Returns: A URL-encoded string in "key=value&key=value" form """ if parameters is None: return None if not isinstance(parameters, dict): raise TwitterError("`parameters` must be a dict.") else: params = dict() for k, v in parameters.items(): if v is not None: if getattr(v, 'encode', None): v = v.encode('utf8') params.update({k: v}) return urlencode(params) def _ParseAndCheckTwitter(self, json_data): """Try and parse the JSON returned from Twitter and return an empty dictionary if there is any error. This is a purely defensive check because during some Twitter network outages it will return an HTML failwhale page. """ try: data = json.loads(json_data) except ValueError: if "<title>Twitter / Over capacity</title>" in json_data: raise TwitterError({'message': "Capacity Error"}) if "<title>Twitter / Error</title>" in json_data: raise TwitterError({'message': "Technical Error"}) if "Exceeded connection limit for user" in json_data: raise TwitterError({'message': "Exceeded connection limit for user"}) if "Error 401 Unauthorized" in json_data: raise TwitterError({'message': "Unauthorized"}) raise TwitterError({'Unknown error': '{0}'.format(json_data)}) self._CheckForTwitterError(data) return data @staticmethod def _CheckForTwitterError(data): """Raises a TwitterError if twitter returns an error message. Args: data (dict): A python dict created from the Twitter json response Raises: (twitter.TwitterError): TwitterError wrapping the twitter error message if one exists. """ # Twitter errors are relatively unlikely, so it is faster # to check first, rather than try and catch the exception if 'error' in data: raise TwitterError(data['error']) if 'errors' in data: raise TwitterError(data['errors']) def _RequestChunkedUpload(self, url, headers, data): try: return requests.post( url, headers=headers, data=data, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies ) except requests.RequestException as e: raise TwitterError(str(e)) def _RequestUrl(self, url, verb, data=None, json=None, enforce_auth=True): """Request a url. Args: url: The web location we want to retrieve. verb: Either POST or GET. data: A dict of (str, unicode) key/value pairs. Returns: A JSON object. """ if enforce_auth: if not self.__auth: raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.") if url and self.sleep_on_rate_limit: limit = self.CheckRateLimit(url) if limit.remaining == 0: try: stime = max(int(limit.reset - time.time()) + 10, 0) logger.debug('Rate limited requesting [%s], sleeping for [%s]', url, stime) time.sleep(stime) except ValueError: pass if not data: data = {} if verb == 'POST': if data: if 'media_ids' in data: url = self._BuildUrl(url, extra_params={'media_ids': data['media_ids']}) resp = self._session.post(url, data=data, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies) elif 'media' in data: resp = self._session.post(url, files=data, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies) else: resp = self._session.post(url, data=data, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies) elif json: resp = self._session.post(url, json=json, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies) else: resp = 0 # POST request, but without data or json elif verb == 'GET': data['tweet_mode'] = self.tweet_mode url = self._BuildUrl(url, extra_params=data) resp = self._session.get(url, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies) else: resp = 0 # if not a POST or GET request if url and self.rate_limit and resp: limit = resp.headers.get('x-rate-limit-limit', 0) remaining = resp.headers.get('x-rate-limit-remaining', 0) reset = resp.headers.get('x-rate-limit-reset', 0) self.rate_limit.set_limit(url, limit, remaining, reset) return resp def _RequestStream(self, url, verb, data=None, session=None): """Request a stream of data. Args: url: The web location we want to retrieve. verb: Either POST or GET. data: A dict of (str, unicode) key/value pairs. Returns: A twitter stream. """ session = session or requests.Session() if verb == 'POST': try: return session.post(url, data=data, stream=True, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies) except requests.RequestException as e: raise TwitterError(str(e)) if verb == 'GET': url = self._BuildUrl(url, extra_params=data) try: return session.get(url, stream=True, auth=self.__auth, timeout=self._timeout, proxies=self.proxies) except requests.RequestException as e: raise TwitterError(str(e)) return 0 # if not a POST or GET request